US Senate passes Hong Kong democracy bill in a win for Washington’s China hardliners

South China Morning Post 發布於 2019年11月20日00:11 • Robert Delaney, US bureau chief robert.delaney@scmp.com
  • The number of lawmakers cosponsoring surged ahead of the bill’s passage, following violence at Hong Kong’s Polytechnic University
  • The approval likely sends the legislation to US President Donald Trump to sign into law
Riot police detain a student activist at Hong Kong Polytechnic University on Monday. Support for a US Senate bill that could pave the way for diplomatic action and sanctions against the city has risen to nearly half of the US chamber’s members. Photo: AP

The US Senate on Tuesday passed a bill that could pave the way for diplomatic action and economic sanctions against Hong Kong, likely sending the legislation to President Donald Trump to sign into law.

Congress's upper chamber put the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act, sponsored by Florida Republican Marco Rubio, through an expedited process that sidestepped a roll call vote, allowing the bill to pass without any objections. The Senate also passed the Protect Hong Kong Act, sponsored by Oregon Democrat Jeff Merkley, which would prohibit US companies from exporting non-lethal crowd control and defence items to the city.

The House of Representatives passed that chamber's versions of the two bills last month.

"The United States Senate sent a clear message to Hong Kongers fighting for their long-cherished freedoms: we hear you, we continue to stand with you, and we will not stand idly by as Beijing undermines your autonomy," Rubio announced. "The passage of this bill is an important step in holding accountable those Chinese and Hong Kong government officials responsible for Hong Kong's eroding autonomy and human rights violations.

#HongKong we hear you.We continue to stand with you.Tonight, the Senate passed my #HongKongHumanRightsandDemocracyAct pic.twitter.com/ldUmjYk7yK

" Marco Rubio (@marcorubio) November 19, 2019

"Both the United States Senate and House of Representatives have now demonstrated bipartisan solidarity with the people of Hong Kong as they stand up for their freedoms and basic human rights," Rubio added.

The number of senators cosponsoring the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act surged on Monday, showing the biggest jump since the bill was introduced in June, following a steady stream of reports about a violent stand-off playing out since Sunday between police and radical students at Polytechnic University in Hong Kong.

While some of the students resorted to throwing petrol bombs at the officers, others blocked roads and engaged in other tactics to distract the police and thin out their ranks at the campus.

Speaking before the passage, many of the lawmakers blamed Beijing and the Hong Kong government for the cycle of violence in recent months that has culminated in the university standoff.

The two versions of the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act will need to go to a committee of House and Senate members to be reconciled into one unified bill that will go back to each chamber for final approvals. US President Donald Trump will then have 10 days to sign the bill into law or veto it.

The two versions have many of the same stipulations, including a requirement that the US government produce an annual report, certified by the Secretary of State, that Hong Kong has retained enough autonomy from China to continue the city's distinct trading status.

That distinction protects Hong Kong from the punitive tariffs Washington placed on goods from China last year.

Up to 100 activists still holed up as Hong Kong campus stand-off continues

Both versions also call for sanctions against any individuals or entities deemed to have violated freedoms guaranteed under Hong Kong's Basic Law and direct the State Department to not deny visas to those subjected to "politically motivated" arrests or detention in the city.

However, the Senate version goes further in terms of its objectives and stated tactics.

For example, Rubio's version states that it is the US government's policy "to support the establishment of a genuine democratic option to freely and fairly nominate and elect" Hong Kong's chief executive and all members of the city's Legislative Council (LegCo) by 2020. The House version has no such timeline.

US Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell (centre) is among new cosponsors of the Hong Kong Human Rights and Democracy Act. Photo: AP

Hong Kong's current chief executive, Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor, was elected in 2017 by a 1,194-member election committee composed mostly of Beijing loyalists.

Half of the Legco members are directly elected by voters in geographical constituencies and the remaining 35 members are returned by 29 functional constituencies, which act on the behalf of particular professions and trades.

The Senate version also calls for the US government to "coordinate" with allies including Britain, Australia, Japan and South Korea "to promote democracy and human rights in Hong Kong".

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